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  • Kramer, Gisieli (2021)
  • Abstract
  • The study on the dynamics of water temperature by remote sensing can provide an
    understanding of metabolic changes in large water bodies. Hence, the objective of the present
    research was to identify the spatiotemporal variation in water temperature and its effect on areas
    of algal bloom recurrence. The study area comprised the water compartments São Francisco
    Verdadeiro (SFV), Ocoí, and the central area of the Itaipu Reservoir, on the Paraná River,
    located in the western region of the State of Paraná, Brasil. The research methodology gathered
    four data production fronts: 1) on water surface temperature in the SFV water compartment
    registered in situ (TSAi) and satellite images (TSAs) from 2015 to 2017 for the development
    and validation of a mathematical model for estimating (TSAe); 2) application of this model and
    identification of TSAe, in the study areas between 2013 and 2020; and 3) occurrence of thermal
    plumes and their relationship with algal blooms. TSA estimates were generated from Landsat
    8 satellite image data, Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), and processed in Envi 5.5 softwares,
    using the Band Math tool and the QGIS 2.14, and employing the Planck Equation method,
    which is in the Land Surface Temperature (LST) plugin. Given the implementation of the model
    in the study area, with statistically significant performance (RMSE of 0.8°C), the variation in
    TSAe indicated average estimates between 18 and 27°C from 2013 to 2020. However,
    statistically significant changes in TSAe were noted between periods of presence and absence
    of blooms with mean differences > 0, which occurred for all seasons of the year, with greater
    frequency for the autumn and winter periods. These changes raised the maximum average
    temperatures in the blooming sites with 28°C in autumn, 26°C in winter, 27.91°C in spring, and
    31.79°C in summer. The Ocoí aquatic compartment showed the highest frequency of blooming
    in June and August, while the highest for SFV was in May. Mostly, the highest recurrence of
    the previously mentioned blooms in 2019 and 2020 was noticeable. Furthermore, these were
    the years with the highest average maximum air temperatures. This fact possibly favored the
    warming of the waters and resulted in the intensification of algae bloom episodes. It was
    observed that, under the same period of analysis, in 2019, in the water column, the presence of
    blooms and the heating of the TSAe in the SFV provided differences in the thermal gradient
    concerning the Ocoí, which can determine the beginning and duration of the thermal
    stratification. The temperature variation observed in the water compartments was greater than
    in the reservoir area, where no episode of algal bloom was identified. Reservoirs with this
    scenario and history of blooms tend to be more susceptible, in the future, to increased frequency
    and severity of algal blooms, unless other variables, such as nutrient availability, are not
    sufficient to support their growth.

Rosa, Cristiano Niederauer da (2021)


Peransoni, Ademir de Cássio Machado (2020)

Remote sensing to identify soy infected by fungi causing asian rust


  • Wachholz, Flávio 
  • Influência da bacia hidrográfica e características espaço-temporais de variáveis limnológicas sobre reservatórios no Rio Jacuí – RS
  • Influence of the hydrographic basin and spatio-temporal characteristics of limnological variables on reservoirs in the Jacuí River – RS
  • The building of a dam is an anthropic intervention in the drainage system that changes the natural water flow. This work has characterized and analyzed the limnological and spectral structure on a spatial and temporal scale of the freshwater reservoirs Hidropower Plants (HPP) Passo Real and Dona Francisca of the river Jacuí – RS and, the relationship with the hydrographic basins that make up on the Alto Jacuí. The relationship with the hydrographic basins that make they up on the Alto Jacuí. The hypothesis was that the optical proprieties varies on the spatial and temporal scale as a function of the own reservoir proprieties as well of the hydrographic basins. The methodological procedures were: 1) limnological data acquisition (Secchi transparency, temperature, total of suspended solids – TSS, dissolved organic carbon and chlorophyll a) and field spectroradiometry (hyperspectral data) of the period from February 2009 to March 2010; 2) data base elaboration with the hydrographic basin elements (geosystem and social-economic system) and the limnological variables at the spatial and temporal perspective; 3) identification of the fragility areas of the hydrographic basin and the reservoir characteristics that affect the water quality; 4) relation analysis between the spectral and the limnological data to verify the potential of these to reservoir monitoring. The results showed that Passo Real reservoir hydrographic basin, with a hilly relief, has land use predominance of agriculture, especially for crops such as soybean in the summer and wheat at the winter season. The Dona Francisca reservoir, which is in the basis of the sequence of reservoirs, receives the tributary named Jacuizinho, has a relief characterized by hills and land use with predominance of forest and open fields. In both reservoirs the water temperature is bellow to 20 ºC in the winter season. Further, the greatest thermic amplitude of water was verified always in the Passo Real reservoir. The transparency, TSS and chlorophyll a values were related to a normal rain occurrence (February to July 2009 and February to Mach 2010) and to the winter rainy season (August 2009 to January 2010). Concentration of TSS was higher in the rainy season, therefore the water transparency decreased in this season. The pulse of material provided by the hydrographic basin in the rainy season created favorable conditions to the algae development, especially in the Passo Real reservoir, which showed a eutrophic to hyper-eutrophic state. The higher concentration of TSS and chlorophyll a in the Passo Real reservoir in relation to the Dona Francisca reservoir is related to several factors: larger water retention time, which is more similar to a lake even in the rainy season; higher water temperature; presence of several aquatic compartments; more wind access, which re-suspend sediment and moves part of the nutrients; and the mainly factor is related to the agricultural land use in the hydrographic basin. The dissolved organic carbon showed low concentrations along all period. The correlation between the limnological data and field spectral data presented significant correlation for the red and near infrared wavelengths, allowing the derivations of regression equations (e.g. water transparency: y = 1.0094*(752/697 nm) – 0.5747, R²=0.97). The hypothesis was confirmed for the Alto Jacuí reservoir, where a higher material input from the hydrographic basin was verified and the longer water residence time in the Passo Real reservoir lead to siltation and to an excessive development of algae.

  • Corazza, Rosana 
  • Algae blooms identification in the guaíba lake with the use of satellite images and field spectroradiometry. 


The eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems is a slow and natural process, but that has intensified greatly because of the influence of human activity. One of the consequences of artificial eutrophication are increasingly frequent and intense algae blooms. Some genera groups of algae, and cyanobacteria can produce toxins that pose a risk to humans and aquatic biota and therefore blooms deserve special attention. The Guaiba Lake is an important water body in the State of Rio Grande do Sul and the main source of Porto Alegre city. Its basin covers about 30% of the state area and major rivers – Jacuí, Caí, Sinos and Gravataí – drain areas of intense agricultural and industrial use. In the Guaiba Lake, blooms have been frequent, especially in the last decade and represent a serious environmental challenge. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for identification of episodes of algal bloom in the Guaiba Lake from the integration of radiometric data in situ simultaneously acquired with limnology data (chlorophyll-a, suspended solids total, water transparency, etc.) and satellite images. To obtain the reflectance spectra a portable spectroradiometer FieldSpec® HandHeld was used, with a collection of 16 sampling points defined a priori. The fieldwork took place in March 2012, May 2013 and April 2014. The spectra were correlated with limnological variables obtained simultaneously. For the spatio-temporal analysis of the blooms 10 images produced by Landsat satellites 5 and 7 (TM and ETM+ sensors) were selected and provided by United States Geological Survey (USGS), adjusted for the effects of the atmosphere and converted to surface reflectance. These images were produced in the months of summer and fall, between the years 2005 and 2012, and coincided with the dates of the blooms identified by the Municipal Department of Water and Sewerage (DMAE) in the city of Porto Alegre. Three processing routines were applied to images: 1) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); 2) Linear Spectral Mixture Model (LSMM) and 3) the Analysis by Principal Component (ACP). During the collection of spectra in the field no bloom was identified, but even so it was possible to identificaty reflectance standards in different areas and climatic conditions in the Lake as well as the influence of chlorophyll-a and suspended solids in the spectral response of the water. The main results of the satellite images processing were: a) the NDVI is suitable for mapping the scope and intensity of blooms and results greater than -0.2 indicate flowering areas; b) the LSMM presented limitations for mapping the blooms related to the difficulty of obtaining good reference spectra directly on the images but allowed the evaluation of spatial variations of water features; c) the technique of ACP increased correlations of image data with Chl-a and cyanobacteria compared to NDVI, and non-supervised classification of the principal component identified in the flowering cluster areas as well as areas where other components were at play. Factors that contributed to the establishment of blooms in the lake were slower rate of water flow, the less depth of the water column, lower wind speed and lower levels of rainfall, combined with the greater availability of light and nutrient supply. It was concluded that the techniques used were suitable for mapping blooms and the analysis using data from different natures can improve existing methodologies and open new possibilities for identification and monitoring of algae.


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  • Mallmann, C.L.; Pereira Filho, W.; Dreyer, J.B.B.; Tabaldi, L.A.; Durgante, F.M. Leaf-Level Field Spectroscopy to Discriminate Invasive Species (Psidium guajava L. and Hovenia dulcis Thunb.) from Native Tree Species in the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Remote Sens. 2023, 15, 791.
  • Kramer G, Filho WP, de Carvalho LAS, Trindade PMP, da Rosa CN, Dezordi R. Performance and validation of water surface temperature estimates from Landsat 8 of the Itaipu Reservoir, State of Paraná, Brazil. Environ Monit Assess. 2022 Nov 22;195(1):137. doi: 10.1007/s10661-022-10677-6. PMID: 36417002.
  • Pereira Filho, W. Cartografia e Sensoriamento Remoto na Avaliação de Dados com Abordagem Espaço e Tempo.
  • Cassol, APV. et al. (2014). First record of a bloom of the invasive species Ceratium furcoides (Levander) Langhans 1925 in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil
  • Rosana Corazza/Waterloo Pereira Filho: O uso de imagens de satélite no ensino de geografia com ênfase nas teorias dos níveis de desenvolvimento cognitivo e do construtivismo de Jean Piaget
  • Felipe Correa dos Santos / Waterloo Pereira Filho: O uso de imagens de satélite como recurso didático para o estudo da categoria lugar
  • Cláudio Clemente Faria Barbosa / Waterloo Pereira Filho: Geospatial analysisof spatiotemporal patterns of pH, total suspended sediment and chlorophyll-a on the Amazon floodplain
  • Cláudio Clemente Faria Barbosa / Waterloo Pereira Filho: Metodologia de análise da dinâmica de área e volume inundável: o exemplo da várzea o lago grande de Curuai
  • Carlos Conrado Moraes Rudorff / Waterloo Pereira Filho: Análise derivativa de dados hiperespectrais medidos em nível de campo e orbital para caracterizar a composição de águas opticamente complexas na Amazônia
  • EvlynMárcia Leão de Moraes Novo / Waterloo Pereira Filho: Seasonal changes in chlorophyll distributions in Amazon floodplain lakes derived from MODIS images
  • Evlyn Márcia Leão de Moraes Novo et al. (2004): Assessing the utility of spectral band operators to reduce the influence of total suspended solids on the relationship between chlorophyll concentration and the bidirectional reflectance factor in Amazon waters
  • Fabio Marcelo Breunig / Waterloo Pereira Filho: Análise das propriedades ópticas da água do reservatório Rodolfo Costa e Silva – Itaara, RS, Brasil, usando dados espectrais de campo e imagens orbitais multiespectrais
  • Lênio Soares Galvão et al. (2003): Spectral reflectance characterization of shallow lakes from the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands with field and airborne hyperspectral data
  • Gracieli Trentin / Waterloo Pereira Filho: Como a população rural de Severiano de Almeida/RS percebe o ambiente onde vive
  • Gracieli Trentin / Waterloo Pereira Filho: Características limnológicas no município de Severiano de Almeida-RS
  • Luciano de Oliveira Garcia/Waterloo Pereira Filho: Freshwater temperature in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, and its implication for fish culture